Shalya Tantra is one of the primary specialty wing of Ayurvedic medicine which denotes the Surgical Medicine. Sage Sushrutha is considered as the mentor of this specialty wing. Shalya Tantra embraces all processes aiming at the removal of factors responsible for producing pain or misery to the body or mind.
The scope of this branch of Medical Science is to mitigate any extraneous substance and to deal with the principle and mode of using and handling surgical instruments in general, and with the application of heat (cautery) and alkaline (caustic) substances, together with the diagnosis and treatment of various surgical disease conditions. A wide alley of description is available in ayurvedic texts, describing the various surgical instruments and its uses in various conditions. Sushruta Samhita,is considered to be the systematic study of surgery is the earliest treatise and also the best which deals with the surgery particularly the principles of surgery in detail. There are various segments of surgical and para-surgical measure explained in the classic texts of Ayurveda in details.
Bhanga Chikitsa or Bhanga Prathishedha is the specified chapter in the Ayurvedic classic texts, explains the treatment principles and practice of Bone fractures, joint injuries, joint dislocations, and sports injuries. Fracture is termed as Bhagna/Bhanga in Ayurveda which means breach/ break in the continuity of bone. Bhagna is classified in two ways. That are, Sandhimukta or dislocations and Kanda Bhagna ie. Bone Fracture. The tradition of Kalarippayat legacy hold a special space in the development and practice of a unique way of fracture healing and bone and joint disease management. This treatment tradition is popularly known as Kalari Chikitsa in Kerala. A wide range of closed fracture variants are treated effectively in the system of Kalari Chikitsa. The measures include various reduction methodologies, stabilizing techniques such as splinting, medicinal bandaging and casting. oil massages, oil streaming and internal medicines.
This traditional system of healing is very effective in the post orthopedic rehabilitation. A wide verity of therapeutic procedures such as Abhyanga, Upanaha, Dhara, Patra Pinda Sweda, Shashtika Shali Pinda Sweda, Aushadha bandhana and variety of internal medicines are used for the rehabilitation of bone and joint functionalities, and musculoskeletal integrity.
“Agni” the fire is considered as the principle factor behind all the metabolic functionalities happening in the living system. The utility of fire otherwise termed as heat is used in various disease condition to treat it well. Agni means fire and karma means procedure. The principle heat energy is created and applied with various means in Ayurveda. These procedures are included in the segment of Shalya Tantra. In Sushruta Samhita, it is included under the para-surgical procedures. The entire process is termed as Dahanopakrama which means thermal cautery. This procedure is very widely used in the conditions related to musculoskeletal origin to arrest the pain. Various conditions such as Janu Sandhi Gatha Vatha (Knee osteo arthritis), Kati graham (Lumbar back pain) Ghruthrasi (sciatica), Griva ghaha (Cervical spondilitis), Pada Soola (Plantar fasciitis, Vata Kandaka (Achilles tendinitis) Apa Bahuka (Frozan shoulder) etc.
Raktamoksha is one of the principle Shodhana (cleansing) therapies in Ayurveda. It is considered as a para-surgical procedure mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. This procedure is chiefly advocated in condition related with Pitha energy and Rakta Dhatu. It is also mentioned that, when every other treatment is not giving a desired therapeutic benefit, Raktha Moksha is the choice of treatment. Various type of skin diseases, varicose vein, gout are treated very well with the procedure of Raktha Moksha.
The word such mean needles and vedha means puncture. This procedure is mentioned in Ayurveda classics as a para surgical procedure, used for the treatment of various diseases related to Vatha energy imbalance. Vidha karma i.e. puncturing in the vital points is considered as a important clinical measure in the pain management protocol in Ayurvedic system. It is effectively used in various musculoskeletal conditions, neurological diseases conditions and also in various headaches.